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      美國:創新PPP模式――“為成功付費”,推動教育公平

    1. 導讀:這里介紹美國政府的一項創新戰略――為成功付費(Pay for Success,PFS)。這是一個什么樣的戰略?它如何與教育改革、教育公平和就業公平相結合?本文將使用三A三力評價體系進行分析,帶您清楚地了解一項由政府和私人部門共同推動的社會創新。本文所使用的案例引自“善與志”公眾號2016年12月23日發表的文章,作者朱照南。在此謹致謝忱。

      項目名稱:為成功付費(Pay for Success,PFS)

      項目簡介: 2016年11月10日,美國教育部門宣布:通過實施“為成功付費(Pay for Success,PFS)”的戰略方式來支持邊緣青少年群體就業、技能培訓項目(Career and Technical Education,CTE)和早期雙語教育項目。這表明,PFS模式在美國教育門領域已經得到認可,成為推動教育部門改革和教育公平的工具。

      Aim

      社會目標

      推動教育改革,實現教育公平和就業公平。

      Approach

      實施途徑:為成功付費

      PFS(Pay For Success)是政府與私人部門合作推動解決社會問題和提供公共服務的一種創新模式,其核心方式在于找到社會問題的解決模式,并規模化。

      Pay For Success――為成功付費:主要運作方式是先由私人投資支持結果導向的社會干預項目,如果項目成功便由政府買單。而PFS也將焦點關注在為社會效果付費以及如何以最低的成本實現這些社會效果,以此提升政府解決社會問題的效率、創新性與影響力。

      目前,美國各級政府已在很多領域開始使用PFS來解決社會問題,包括母嬰健康、早教、家庭穩定、無家可歸者項目和刑事審判等諸多領域。美國教育部門11月10日的通告標志著PFS模式又即將在一些新的領域獲得推廣,主要涉及邊緣青少年群體技術教育項目(CTE)和兒童英語學習項目。

      Action

      為成功付費與兩個教育類項目的結合

      1、邊緣青少年就業和技術培訓項目

      美國教育部門為了提升為弱勢、邊緣青少年群體的服務效果,已經投入200萬美元資助波士頓地區的社會金融(Social Financeinc, SF),推動該機構與“未來就業”(Jobs for the Future, JFF)合作,培育具有潛力的教育就業培訓項目或幫助那些高質量的就業和技能培訓項目實現規模化。SF和JFF將選擇四個關注就業和技術教育的地方試點項目,并且幫助他們了解PFS范式如何將其項目效果最大化,惠及更多學生。SF將會協助其中三個項目開展和執行,越來越多的證據表明這些CTE項目為邊緣青少年帶來了積極的效果,包括提升了高中畢業率和在一些就業憑證考試中的通過率。

      2、早期英語教育項目有效性研究項目

      為了提升兒童英語學習效果,教育部門花費29萬美元與華盛頓地區一家名為美國研究院(American Institutes for Research, AIR)的機構簽訂合同,支持該機構開展一項研究,該研究主要目的在于評估和鑒別至少兩個應用新型雙語教育模式的學校試點項目的有效性,研究結果公布之后就可以通過PFS項目將有效的雙語教育模式規模化,讓更多有需要的學生受益。

      AIR將會研究英語教育的成果如何通過PFS戰略獲得提升,如何撬動私人資本支持這些服務,以及如何幫助政府只為那些被證明確實能夠為服務對象帶來幫助的服務付費。測量英語學習效果的一個重要標準是學習者能夠在三年級到達平均的閱讀水平,然而學校和社區通常缺乏有效的資源提供這些教育服務。該項目研究群體主要是拉丁裔兒童,因為這一群體占到了英語早期學習者的80%。

      這一模式創新,將有利于聚焦能夠產生長遠影響的服務項目,讓美國州政府、地方合作伙伴、私人和慈善投資聯合在一起,檢驗新想法,尋找新方式,提升早期教育的有效性以為更多弱勢兒童服務。

      美國教育部門以PFS模式推動教育和就業公平,將處于邊緣地帶的青少年和弱勢兒童服務的有效項目識別出來并給予支持,讓更多有需求的學生受益,產生更大的社會效果。PFS這一方式并不僅僅是政府資助的補充,而是一種巨大潛力的公私合作模式,該模式將會在提升公共投資的效果方面產生長遠的積極影響。

      (來源:善與志、友成企業家扶貧基金會 。原文章標題《“為成功付費” (Pay for Success)如何推動弱勢群體教育和就業公平?》 )

       相關閱讀:

      WHAT IS PAY FOR SUCCESS?

      Pay for Success (PFS) is an approach to contracting that ties payment for service delivery to the achievement of measurable outcomes. The movement towards PFS contracting is a means of ensuring that high-quality, effective social services are working for individuals and communities.

      Traditionally, contracts or grants to support social service delivery are based on the volume of services delivered (e.g., number of students taught in a job training program) or short-term outputs (e.g., number of people who graduated from the job training program). An outcome is a longer-term (and hopefully positive) change; for example, a job training participant who finds and keeps a job, and experiences an increase in earnings.

      In a PFS contract, the payor for outcomes typically, but not exclusively, government agrees to provide funding if and when the services delivered achieve a pre-agreed-upon result. Typically, an independent evaluator determines whether the agreed-upon outcomes have been met.

      PFS contracting has been used to scale up effective programs and interventions, as well as test innovative models of service delivery. Since the payor is not committed to paying for services if they do not achieve the desired outcomes, PFS can be particularly attractive to governments as a way to realize greater accountability and efficiency by allocating resources to programs with demonstrable outcomes.

      The first PFS project launched in the United Kingdom in 2010, and the first project in the United States launched in 2012. Since then, early-stage PFS activity has occurred in most parts of the United States. As of early 2016, ten projects have launched, one project has completed, and there are more than 50 projects in development. Further, there is significant activity at the federal government level to support the growth of the PFS market. To date, PFS projects have been designed to address a range of issues, including homelessness, recidivism and early childhood education. (Updated: 2/5/16)

      PAY FOR SUCCESS FINANCING AND SOCIAL IMPACT BONDS

      Most service providers are not in a strong enough financial position to deliver services for several years with no dedicated revenue, especially with the risk of not being repaid if they do not achieve the pre-agreed upon outcomes in a Pay for Success (PFS) contract (see above). For this reason, PFS contracts are usually accompanied by financing agreements that provide upfront capital to support service delivery throughout the project period.

      PFS financing agreements, in which private investors provide upfront capital for the delivery of services and are repaid by a back-end payor (usually a government) if contractually agreed upon outcomes are achieved, are often referred to as "Social Impact Bonds" (illustrated in Chart 1 and described below). Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) are a mechanism by which to shift financial risk from service providers to investors, with investors underwriting service providers’ based on their ability to deliver on positive social outcomes.

      The contracts and the flow of money in SIB financing are often managed by a project intermediary or transaction coordinator. Funding is aggregated from private, nongovernmental investors to provide the upfront capital required by a service provider to deliver services over the life of a PFS contract. The payor contracts with the service provider for certain outcomes and also contracts with investors to pay back their investment if the agreed-upon outcomes are achieved. An independent evaluator determines whether or not the target outcomes have been met. If the target outcomes are not met, investors are not repaid.

       

      PAY FOR SUCCESS ACTORS

      Pay for Success (PFS) projects are multi-stakeholder partnerships that typically involve the public, private and nonprofit sectors.

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